1. Why was the Renaissance a turning point in the development of Western civilization? Why was it a "rebirth"?




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Title1. Why was the Renaissance a turning point in the development of Western civilization? Why was it a "rebirth"?
Date conversion12.05.2013
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Sourcehttp://www.pointlomahigh.com/ourpages/auto/2009/4/28/42837354/Renaissance AP Review Outline.rtf





Main Themes:


1. Why was the Renaissance a turning point in the development of Western civilization? Why was it a "rebirth"?

2. How was the Renaissance in Italy different from that in Northern Europe? How was it the same?

3. How did the Catholic Church lose the dominant position it had had during the medieval period in the Renaissance?


I. The Renaissance as the bridge between the medieval and the modern world.





MEDIEVAL WORLD

RENAISSANCE WORLD

philosophy:

scholasticism.

humanism.

economics:

manorialism.
barter economy.


merchant princes of Italy.
money economy.
beginnings of Commercial
Revolution.


politics:

feudalism.

city-states of Northern Italy.
rise of modern nation-states in
Northern Europe.


the arts:

stylized, religious themes.

harmony, balance, proportion.
modeled after ancient Greece
and Rome.
classicism revised.


religion:

domination of Catholic Church.

individual interpretation of the
Scriptures.
classical literary criticism.
groundwork laid for Prot. Reform.




II. Major Upheavals of the Lat 14c-Early 15c


A. Period of "creative breakup"
(The Calamitous 14c -Barbara Tuchman)

B. Hundred Years' War the rise of the modern nation-state.

C. Black Death economic and social upheaval.

D. Avignon papacy and the Conciliar Movement breakup of papal power.

III. Italian Renaissance:

A. "pagan" humanism
revival of interest in the Greek and Roman classics.
enjoyment of worldly pleasures.

vernacular literature Dante, Petrarch, Boccacio, etc.

B. l'uomo universale concept of the universal, "Renaissance Man"
Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier

Leonardo Da Vinci - The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, the Vitruvian Man
Michelangelo - David, Pieta, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Isabella d'Este

C. great Italian cities

Florence the "heart" of Italian Renaissance culture/birthplace of the Reniassance
Venice the main center of Italian Renaissance trade.
Rome still spiritual capital of Christendom (corrupt popes - ex., Alexander VI)

D. Italian politics Machiavelli's The Prince
the "merchant" princes (Medici family).

despots (Caesare Borgia).
machiavellianism and virtu.

E. Art Quattrocento and the High Renaissance

the different artistic styles of the two periods?

how did these styles and the artistic themes of the paintings and sculpture reflect the
philosophy of Renaissance humanism?

IV. The Northern Renaissance:

A. "Christian" humanism
Desiderius Erasmus --> In Praise of Folly
Thomas More --> Utopia
Rabelais --> Gargantua
Cervantes --> Don Quixote
Michel de Montaigne --> Essays (skepticism)
a trace of mysticism
criticisms of the Church, but WITHIN the Church.

B. Gutenberg printing press What were its effects on the spread of humanist ideas?

C. vernacular writing Shakespeare, Cervantes, Rabelais.

D. the arts:
differences in artistic style between Northern Europe and Italy??
the Flemish School --> Jan van Eyck, Hans Holbein


V. The Decline of the Renaissance Church:

A. general symptoms of failure?

B. the rise of national churches in England, France, Spain, Italy, and the Germanies (as a
result of the breakdown in old feudal ties and obligations).

C. Conciliar movement.

D. indulgences controversy.



ADDITIONAL TERMS TO KNOW:

scholasticism
humanism
virtu
l'uomo universale
courtier
Quattrocento
sfumato
contrapposto



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