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1. Why was the Renaissance a turning point in the development of Western civilization? Why was it a "rebirth"?
2. How was the Renaissance in Italy different from that in Northern Europe? How was it the same?
3. How did the Catholic Church lose the dominant position it had had during the medieval period in the Renaissance?
I. The Renaissance as the bridge between the medieval and the modern world.
II. Major Upheavals of the Lat 14c-Early 15c
A. Period of "creative breakup"
(The Calamitous 14c -Barbara Tuchman)
B. Hundred Years' War the rise of the modern nation-state.
C. Black Death economic and social upheaval.
D. Avignon papacy and the Conciliar Movement breakup of papal power.
III. Italian Renaissance:
A. "pagan" humanism
revival of interest in the Greek and Roman classics.
enjoyment of worldly pleasures.
vernacular literature Dante, Petrarch, Boccacio, etc.
B. l'uomo universale concept of the universal, "Renaissance Man"
Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier
Leonardo Da Vinci - The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, the Vitruvian Man
Michelangelo - David, Pieta, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
C. great Italian cities
Florence the "heart" of Italian Renaissance culture/birthplace of the Reniassance
Venice the main center of Italian Renaissance trade.
Rome still spiritual capital of Christendom (corrupt popes - ex., Alexander VI)
D. Italian politics Machiavelli's The Prince
the "merchant" princes (Medici family).
despots (Caesare Borgia).
machiavellianism and virtu.
E. Art Quattrocento and the High Renaissance
the different artistic styles of the two periods?
how did these styles and the artistic themes of the paintings and sculpture reflect the
philosophy of Renaissance humanism?
IV. The Northern Renaissance:
A. "Christian" humanism
Desiderius Erasmus --> In Praise of Folly
Thomas More --> Utopia
Rabelais --> Gargantua
Cervantes --> Don Quixote
Michel de Montaigne --> Essays (skepticism)
a trace of mysticism
criticisms of the Church, but WITHIN the Church.
B. Gutenberg printing press What were its effects on the spread of humanist ideas?
C. vernacular writing Shakespeare, Cervantes, Rabelais.
D. the arts:
differences in artistic style between Northern Europe and Italy??
the Flemish School --> Jan van Eyck, Hans Holbein
V. The Decline of the Renaissance Church:
A. general symptoms of failure?
B. the rise of national churches in England, France, Spain, Italy, and the Germanies (as a
result of the breakdown in old feudal ties and obligations).
C. Conciliar movement.
D. indulgences controversy.
«great» western he directed, the first of the 7 or 8 important westerns he is famous for. It was produced in 1939, the same year...